Some of the most exciting discoveries in evolutionary biology in recent years have shown how humans have adapted to extreme conditions, such as living at high altitudes. Now, researchers have found that Indonesia's Bajau people, who for generations have spent the majority of their days diving and hunting underwater, also have genetic adaptations for their unusual lifestyle. These "sea nomads" carry a gene variant that seems to lead to unusually large spleens that can supply an extra boost of oxygenated red blood cells on demand.
As a species, humans have populated almost every corner of the earth. We have developed technologies and cultures which shape the world we live in.
Like the complex and mysterious problems of the origin of the solar system and the earth there is a lot of difference of opinions about the age of the earth and its past geological history. Various scientists have attempted to calculate the age of the earth on the basis of different scientific basis, experimental researches and logical arguments but their findings, results and conclusions are so varied and contrasting that it becomes very difficult to arrive at convincing conclusion which may be acceptable to the majority of scientific community.
Biological evolution, simply put, is descent with inherited modification. This definition encompasses everything from small-scale evolution to large-scale evolution.
Charles Darwin is the first human who made people aware of their place in the evolutionary process, which directly or indirectly helped develop many scientific and humanist ideas
Population bottlenecks occur when a population’s size is reduced for at least one generation. Because genetic drift acts more quickly to reduce genetic variation in small populations, undergoing a bottleneck can reduce a population’s genetic variation by a lot, even if the bottleneck doesn’t last for very many generations.
Both natural selection and genetic drift lead to evolution process by varying the gene frequency of a population over time. Both these processes are involved in evolution and are not mutually exclusive. However, natural selection is the only process, which selects the best adaptive organism to the environment, and genetic drift reduces the genetic variation.
In population genetics, evolution is defined as a change in the frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) in a population over time. So, evolution is any shift in allele frequencies in a population over generations – whether that shift is due to natural selection or some other evolutionary mechanism, and whether that shift makes the population better-suited for its environment or not.
HIV virus is one of the most pressing health concerns facing the modern world. Since the first reported case of HIV/AIDS in 1981, over 25 million people have died. Out of the millions of people infected each year with the HIV virus, a few have shown HIV/AIDS resistance. A genetic mutation found mostly in people of European descent delays the progression of AIDS and in some cases even brings about immunity.